Home' Ships and Shipping : September 2009 Contents September 2009 SHIPS AND SHIPPING
The Korea Shipowners' Association (KSA)
has committed itself to ensuring the
growth of the shipping industry in Asia,
to the sound development of the global
shipping market and the sustainable
progress of the world economy while
reinforcing the competitiveness of
Korean shipping in particular.
According to the KSA, Korean carriers
earned freight income of around US$49
billion in 2008, a substantial help to the
improvement of Korea's current account
balance. Nowadays, says the KSA, 99.7
percent of Korea's import and export
cargoes are transported by sea.
The rapid growth of the Korean
economy and its surge in trade since the
1970s has encouraged Korean shipping
companies to expand the Korean flag's
tonnage at an accelerated pace.
The Korean fleet grew from about 800
thousand gross tonnes in 1970 to four
million gross tonnes in 1980, recording an
annual average growth rate of 17 percent.
However, Korean shipping companies
failed to match their rapid growth with a
corresponding increase in profitability due
to excessive internal and external
competition and serious global shipping
stagnation in the early 1980s.
After 1985, the growth rate of the
Korean fleet turned to a sharp decrease as
well. From 1990 onwards, the Korean fleet
increased from nine million gross tons in
1990 to 11 million gross tons in 2003
which indicates a mere 2.7 percent annual
average growth rate.
But after the second half of 2003, the
Korean fleet rapidly increased due
to market recovery. As a result, the
Korean fleet in 2008 grew to 21 million
According to the KSA, the seaborne
cargo volume in Korean trade was 22
million tonnes in 1970 and has increased
to 94 million tonnes in 1980, with an
annual growth rate of 15.5 percent from
1970 to 1980. Against this backdrop, the
Korean Government supported Korean
shipping companies to expand their fleets
in order to back up the rapidly rising trade
volume. Therefore, building up a national
fleet became one of the key policy
initiatives to achieve Korea's economic
take-off and ensure its economy stability.
From the early 1980s, due to the serious
global shipping recession, the financial
structure of Korean shipping companies
had deteriorated. To rise above this
challenge of financial stringency, Korean
shipping companies began consolidations
and mergers with each other and finally
rationalised their structures.
From 1989 onwards, the Korean
Government has implemented various
policy measures to reform and rationalise.
At present, Korea has almost completely
eliminated entry barriers to its shipping
market and its level of deregulation and
liberalisation has reached a level
comparable with the most advanced states
in this regard.
According to the KSA, Korea's shipping
market has entered into a completely
liberalised free competition system.
Accordingly, the Korean flag share of total
seaborne cargo has decreased from 36.3
percent in 1990 to 17.6 percent in 2008.
However, the total seaborne cargo volume
for 2008 increased to 753 million tons.
For further information contact:
Korea Shipowners Association, Korea.
Korea at the centre of the shipping world
A breakdown of Korean flagged vessel types
Wilhelmsen Ships Service provides
Unitor cargo-hold cleaning kits for
different sized ships and cleaning
conditions. Now, with three cleaning kits
intended for different vessel sizes,
customers have everything they need to
handle 60 different cargoes.
The Unitor kits include all the
equipment necessary to clean and prepare
cargo hold surfaces, including extendable
lances and a pressure tank holding the
chemical cleaning agent. This provides an
easily acquired solution for cleaning cargo
holds rapidly without the use of scaffolding
or lifts. The use of custom-made packages
allows the ship's crew to clean the holds
safely and quickly during the ballast voyage
and cargo operations. This reduces the time
needed in port and frees the crew to do
other maintenance tasks.
The right equipment is only half the
battle -- choosing the right cleaning
chemical is essential. When applied, the
chemicals' resident time on the surface
plays an important role, as surfactants need
time to penetrate and to "lift" particles off
the surface. Applying chemicals in foam
state prevents run-off from vertical surfaces
and prolongs the chemical contact time on
Strong alkaline multipurpose cleaners
like Aquatuff and Aquatuff High Foam are
especially recommended. To achieve a
stable foam layer Aquatuff can be used with
Unitor Foam Agent (50ml per 1,000 litres
washing solution), while Aquatuff High
Foam is ready to use.
Cargoes such as coke, petcoke, and
others sometimes make cleaning to a "grain
standard" difficult as small particles can be
very difficult to remove, especially from
organic coatings even with the use of
effective cleaning chemicals and high
pressure water jets. In these cases, it is
recommended to prepare or protect the
cargo holds before loading a "dirty" cargo.
This can be done with a barrier coating,
such as Slip-Coat WR. It is a water-based
product specially formulated to fill the
pores in paint, preventing small particles
from being trapped in the pores. After
curing, Slip-Coat WR leaves a thin,
temporary, water-resistant film that
provides a barrier between the cargo and
the bulkheads. The film is water-insoluble,
making it suitable for cargoes loaded in
damp or wet conditions. It prevents cargo
from sticking to bulkheads as a result of
moisture build-up during a voyage.
For further information contact:
Wilhelmsen Ships Service, Norway.
Cargo hold cleaning solution from Wilhelmsen
The three Unitor cargo-hold cleaning kits cover 60
Links Archive August 2009 October 2009 Navigation Previous Page Next Page